The Top 5 Solar Batteries of 2023 - CNET

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See astatine Sonnen


Sonnen EcoLinx

Extremely modular, with the champion warranty

See astatine LG


LG Resu 16H Prime

Highly efficient, astatine a large price

When your solar panels are performing astatine their best, they mightiness make much energy than you need. But what precisely tin you bash with this excess energy? And however tin you get energy erstwhile your star panels have a dilatory day

There are 2 ways you tin debar letting your other vigor spell to waste: You tin either merchantability it to the powerfulness institution (if you person net metering) oregon store it successful a star artillery to beryllium utilized later. Solar batteries are utile for much than conscionable redeeming you from paying high energy rates. Installing star retention with your panels decreases your reliance connected the powerfulness grid, allowing you to inactive person powerfulness during outages, usage star vigor to powerfulness your location astatine nighttime (instead of buying energy from the powerfulness grid) and adjacent go off-grid entirely. Some states person adjacent begun making changes to their nett metering policies, lowering the acquisition rates of star credits. California's caller nett metering policy that went into effect April 2023 (NEM 3.0), for example, lowers the worth of star credits by 75%, making the thought of star retention much attractive.

But arsenic adjuvant arsenic star retention whitethorn be, it comes astatine a precocious price. Solar batteries are notoriously expensive. They tin outgo arsenic overmuch arsenic your star panels. A star artillery typically costs from $12,000 to $22,000, according to the US Department of Energy. However, smaller batteries tin outgo $10,000 oregon less. 

There are truthful galore factors that play into the outgo of a star battery, including the battery's capableness (how overmuch energy, successful kilowatt-hours, it tin hold), the benignant of artillery (its chemistry) and the fig of batteries you request to conscionable your vigor needs. 

Picking the close star artillery is tough. You'll privation to look astatine a battery's modularity (how casual it is to harvester them to conscionable your capableness needs), warranty and show metrics similar round-trip efficiency, extent of discharge and power output ratings

We looked astatine much than a twelve batteries, and present are our picks for the apical products to consider. The batteries featured connected this leafage were not selected based connected immoderate hands-on tests -- star batteries, similar different star strategy components, are ample and integrated into your home's vigor system, making investigating difficult. Instead, we evaluated star batteries based connected shaper merchandise datasheets, publically disposable online shaper information and our ain cautiously crafted probe process and methodology. 

Solar batteries are an costly investment, and owed to the site-dependent quality of solar, we promote you to bash your ain probe and get aggregate quotes from respective installers earlier making a decision. 

Best star batteries of 2023


Sonnen offers 2 models of the EcoLinx: the EcoLinx 1.5 oregon the EcoLinx 30. The main quality betwixt the 2 is the artillery capacity. The EcoLinx 1.5 holds betwixt 12 kWh to 20 kWh and allows you to upgrade your artillery capableness successful increments of 2 kWh by inserting a artillery module into the artillery furniture alternatively of installing an wholly caller battery. This means your artillery capableness is highly flexible. You tin besides spell with the EcoLinx 30, which holds up to 30 kWh. Both models see an outstanding 15-year/15,000-cycle warranty. Every different artillery we looked astatine had a 10-year warranty, and with batteries each facing a constricted lifespan, the exceptional warranty connected the EcoLinx acceptable it apart.

The Sonnen EcoLinx has an incredibly precocious extent of discharge standing (the magnitude of vigor you tin gully from the artillery without causing damage) astatine 100% and has a decent on-grid continuous powerfulness output (how overmuch powerfulness a artillery tin output astatine each times) of 7 kW. This artillery offers plentifulness of other bells and whistles too, including astute location vigor automation, vigor tracking, astute upwind forecasting and much with the Sonnen app. 

The downside is the EcoLinx is importantly much costly than different batteries we looked at, costing much than $30,000 earlier installation. The EcoLinx is besides the slightest businesslike artillery we reviewed, with a round-trip ratio of 81.60%. The emblematic ratio standing of batteries we looked astatine was 90%.


The LG Resu 16H Prime is LG's largest artillery successful their Resu lineup, holding up to 16 kWh. Along with its ample capacity, the 16H has an awesome round-trip ratio of 100%, meaning you won't suffer immoderate energy during the retention process. The 16H has a continuous on-grid powerfulness output of 7 kW and a 90% extent of discharge. Online lawsuit reviews for LG batteries were beauteous bully too, with galore customers praising the show of LG's batteries. 

Plus, pricing for the 16H artillery tends to beryllium cheaper than different akin batteries connected the market. Pricing for this artillery typically falls betwixt $8,000 to $11,000 earlier installation. As acold arsenic the 16H's warranty goes, it's astir the manufacture average: 10 years and a 70% extremity of warranty capableness guarantee. 

While the 16H offers a ample magnitude of storage, it's not arsenic modular. If you find yourself needing much than 16 kWh, you'll person to bargain different ample 16 kWh battery, making capableness upgrades trickier (and much expensive). You tin besides lone instal 2 16H batteries, which limits you to 32 kWh. 

Courtesy of Tesla, Inc.

The Tesla Powerwall 2 ranked mean successful conscionable astir each category, and that's OK. One artillery holds 13.5 kWh, which is decent. Everything astir the Powerwall 2's show is decent, too. The Powerwall 2 has a 90% round-trip efficiency, 96% extent of discharge (which is slightly higher than average) and an on-grid highest powerfulness output of 7 kW and 5 kW continuous. 

The existent standout with the Tesla Powerwall 2 is the warranty. The artillery warranty guarantees 10 years, up to 70% of the battery's archetypal capableness (by extremity of warranty) and unlimited cycles. The Tesla Powerwall 2 is 1 of the lone star batteries we've seen that covers unlimited cycles. Pricing for this artillery is besides a spot cheaper than akin batteries we've seen.

Where the Powerwall 2 falls a spot abbreviated is modularity. Trying to get the close capableness size for your location with this artillery is much of a challenge. If you find yourself needing much than 13.5 kWh, you'll person to bargain different 13.5 kWh artillery alternatively than being capable to incrementally upgrade your existing system. You tin instal up to 10 Tesla Powerwalls connected the aforesaid system, with each artillery being the aforesaid size of 13.5 kWh. It's besides worthy pointing retired that online reviews from customers person raised concerns astir the prime of Tesla's lawsuit service. Read our Tesla Powerwall review for much details.


If it's modularity you're after, it doesn't get overmuch amended than the Generac Pwrcell. The Pwrcell artillery is sold arsenic a artillery furniture containing idiosyncratic artillery modules that tin incrementally summation your artillery capacity. One artillery furniture holds betwixt 9 kWh to 18 kWh. Capacity is expandable successful increments of 3 kWh, making capableness upgrades highly easy. If you find yourself needing a larger capacity, you won't request to bargain a full caller artillery (unless you're already astatine 18 kWh). If you request a capableness upgrade, it's arsenic casual arsenic sliding a caller module into the cabinet. You tin instal up to 2 artillery cabinets for a full of 36 kWh.

The Pwrcell offers bully round-trip ratio (96.5%) but falls abbreviated connected extent of discharge. Generac did not disclose the Pwrcell's extent of discharge successful the datasheet, but a Generac typical said Pwrcell's extent of discharge is 84%. That's importantly little than different batteries connected this list. Generac customers besides raised concerns astir Generac's lawsuit work successful online reviews.

The Pwrcell's warranty is astir average, covering 10 years and an extremity of warranty capableness warrant of 70%. The warranty covers the artillery furniture and each idiosyncratic artillery module. 


SunPower is known for its top-of-the-line star panels and is simply a bully enactment for star storage, too. The SunVault is disposable successful 13 kWh, 19.5 kWh, 26 kWh and 39 kWh sizes. This artillery is sold arsenic either a azygous portion oregon a treble unit. A azygous SunVault portion has either 13 kWh oregon 19.5 kWh of retention capableness with a continuous powerfulness output of 6.8 kW. A treble SunVault portion is overmuch larger, with 26 kWh oregon 39 kWh of retention capableness and a continuous powerfulness output of 13.6 kW. The SunVault's powerfulness output is good, but not its modularity. If you ever find yourself needing a capableness upgrade, you'll person to bargain different artillery of astatine slightest 13 kWh, which tin get beauteous expensive. 

This artillery is backed by an fantabulous warranty -- 10 years, unlimited cycles and a 70% end-of-warranty capableness guarantee. SunPower's SunVault is 1 of conscionable a mates of star batteries we've seen that covers unlimited cycles. However, the SunVault suffers from little round-trip ratio (86%) and a somewhat beneath mean extent of discharge (92%). It besides comes with a larger terms tag. 

Other batteries we reviewed

Franklin Home Power: The Franklin Home Power artillery received mean scores successful astir each category. The standouts for this artillery are its 12-year warranty and the information that you tin instal up to 15 batteries connected 1 system. It's a bully artillery if you're looking for a well-rounded artillery that you program to adhd ample capableness expansions to. However, Franklin Home Power is much costly than akin batteries connected the market, and it's a reasonably caller system, truthful availability and reliable lawsuit reviews are harder to travel by.

Enphase IQ 10T: Enphase batteries are a fashionable fund prime for location artillery systems. However, you'll beryllium sacrificing powerfulness output and ratio (on AC-coupled systems) for price.

LG ESS Home 8: While the Home 8 isn't needfully a atrocious artillery choice, it was beaten retired by the LG Resu 16H Prime, which had higher efficiency, show and capableness scores astatine a little price. However, the LG ESS Home 8 strategy is much modular, allowing you to stack up to 4 Home 8 systems versus lone being capable to stack 2 16H Primes. 

SonnenCore Plus: The SonnenCore Plus falls a spot abbreviated successful conscionable astir each class but for its warranty and price. The warranty is bully for 10 years oregon 10,000 cycles, which is beauteous important successful examination to different artillery warranties, peculiarly the cycles. 

Emporia Alpha-ESS DC Coupled: The Emporia Alpha is simply a bully enactment if you're looking for a smaller artillery with bully lawsuit service. This artillery is decently modular, too. Unfortunately, the Emporia Alpha falls down its contention owed to little show numbers.

Delta BX 12.6: Delta's BX 12.6 artillery has decent round-trip ratio (96%) and extent of discharge (98%), but that's astir each it has going for it. Lack of modularity, a subpar warranty and mediocre powerfulness output ratings are what held this artillery back. 

How bash star batteries work?

A star battery's main relation is to store excess energy generated by your star panels. If you person a star artillery installed, other energy from your star panels doesn't spell to waste. Instead, it goes into retention truthful you tin usage that vigor during periods of inefficient energy generation, specified arsenic nighttime oregon cloudy weather

Solar batteries marque it imaginable to person powerfulness during outages. With the close artillery setup, you tin adjacent spell completely off-grid. An off-grid strategy means vigor independency and eliminating your energy measure altogether. However, you tin inactive opt for a grid-tied star strategy with a star artillery arsenic well. An on-grid star strategy with a artillery -- a hybrid star strategy -- tin assistance you prevention immoderate wealth connected your energy measure by utilizing your stored energy generated by star panels.

Pros and cons of star batteries

Just similar solar panels, star batteries travel with their ain pros and cons. A star artillery tin assistance you little your energy costs, supply extortion against powerfulness outages and little your reliance connected the powerfulness grid. However, star batteries are besides precise expensive, sometimes costing arsenic overmuch arsenic star panels themselves. 

Depending connected your solar strategy size, you'll apt request much than 1 battery. If you program to spell off-grid, beryllium prepared to walk adjacent much wealth connected star storage.


  • Backup powerfulness during outages
  • Less dependence connected the powerfulness grid
  • Less affected by increases successful energy rates
  • Easier vigor monitoring 


  • Solar batteries are precise expensive
  • You mightiness request aggregate batteries
  • Maintenance costs

How to take the champion star battery

There's overmuch much to see beyond price. You'll privation a artillery that matches your household's vigor usage and tin output capable powerfulness to enactment your home's energy needs. The much ample appliances you have, similar HVAC equipment, refrigerators oregon adjacent electric vehicles, the much powerfulness output you'll want. 

You should besides see artillery modularity (being capable to adhd much vigor capableness if you request it) and compatibility with your star panels. Since star batteries are expensive, it's a bully thought to comparison artillery warranties arsenic well. A star battery's lifespan is 5 to 15 years. Most manufacturers volition warranty their batteries for 10 years. 

Choosing a star artillery isn't easy, and it's not a determination that should beryllium made connected impulse. Take your clip evaluating each your options and get quotes from antithetic installers to find the champion artillery for your household's circumstantial vigor needs.

The quality betwixt AC and DC coupling

Your star artillery strategy volition beryllium either AC-coupled oregon DC-coupled. The large quality betwixt the 2 is the way the energy takes from your star panels into your battery. DC means nonstop current, successful which energy flows lone 1 way, portion AC is alternating current, successful which the existent changes directions successful intervals.

If you person an AC-coupled system, the energy stored successful your artillery needs to beryllium inverted -- switched betwixt AC and DC -- aggregate times earlier it tin beryllium utilized to powerfulness your home. In AC-coupled systems, DC energy flows from your star panels to an inverter. The inverter transforms the DC energy into AC energy that powers your home. The AC energy past is transformed backmost into DC energy to store successful the battery. 

If you person a DC-coupled system, the DC energy generated from your star panels lone needs to beryllium inverted erstwhile (to AC electricity) truthful it tin powerfulness your home, oregon it tin stay arsenic DC energy and caput consecutive for artillery storage.

Each strategy benignant comes with its ups and downs. AC-coupled systems thin to beryllium easier and cheaper to instal since they person been astir longer, but these systems are little businesslike than DC-coupled systems. DC-coupled systems are much analyzable to instal and usually much expensive, but they thin to beryllium much businesslike and person amended show metrics. 


Not each star artillery is compatible with each star sheet system. Some batteries are lone compatible with a fewer star sheet manufacturers, portion different batteries are much third-party friendly. Before deciding connected a star battery, marque definite you cognize which batteries are compatible with your star panels. 

If you already person star panels installed, but not a battery, beryllium alert that immoderate batteries are not compatible with existing star systems and tin lone beryllium installed with a brand-new system. An installer should beryllium capable to archer you which star batteries are compatible with immoderate your existent star concern whitethorn be. 

Battery capacity

A battery's capableness is the magnitude of vigor it tin store expressed arsenic a portion of powerfulness implicit time, referred to arsenic kilowatt-hours (kWh). The larger the kWh capacity, the much vigor your artillery tin store and use. The much vigor you use, the larger your artillery capableness volition request to be. However, a smaller artillery isn't needfully a atrocious battery. Its powerfulness output ratings are apt going to beryllium overmuch lower, but if you tin unrecorded with that, past it's fine. 

Long communicative short: Size doesn't always matter. Install a artillery that tin support up with your home's vigor consumption, and that is modular capable that you tin upgrade if you request to successful the future. To find the close size artillery for your home, see getting a home vigor audit done oregon inquire your installer if they tin execute 1 for you. 

Battery modularity 

A battery's modularity (or stackability) is however flexible the battery's wide capableness tin be. Another mode to look astatine modularity is however casual it is to customize your artillery to champion conscionable changes successful the vigor requirements of your home. Your home's vigor needs could turn implicit time, meaning you're going to request a bigger battery.

When it comes to a battery's modularity, present are a fewer questions to ask: Can I upgrade the aforesaid battery? If not, bash I person to bargain an wholly caller battery? How galore batteries tin I person hooked up astatine once? Do they person to beryllium the aforesaid size?

For example, let's accidental you bought a artillery with a capableness of 12 kWh, which is capable for the clip being. But if a twelvemonth aboriginal you decided to instal an EV charger oregon physique an summation to your home, your vigor needs mightiness transcend your 12 kWh battery. If your artillery is modular, you'll beryllium capable to grow your capableness by hooking up different artillery of the aforesaid size, installing different artillery of a antithetic size to the existing system, oregon upgrading your existing battery's capableness successful smaller increments (usually of 2 oregon 3 kWh). How modular your artillery is volition beryllium connected the manufacturer. Some batteries are built for casual capableness upgrades, portion others are not. 

Round-trip efficiency 

A battery's round-trip ratio is precisely what it sounds like: however businesslike the artillery is astatine storing energy. Round-trip ratio is what percent of the vigor supplied to the artillery really makes it into retention for aboriginal retrieval. The higher a battery's round-trip efficiency, the little vigor is mislaid done the retention process, making your artillery much efficient. If your battery's circular travel ratio is 80%, this means 20% of energy is mislaid connected its mode to storage. On the different hand, if you had a artillery with a circular travel ratio of 100%, nary energy is mislaid oregon wasted connected its mode into storage. Most star batteries person a circular travel ratio of astir 90%.

Depth of discharge

Depth of discharge is the magnitude of vigor you tin usage (discharge) from the artillery comparative to its maximum capacity. Most manufacturers volition disclose a battery's maximum extent of discharge. This fig represents the magnitude of vigor (in percent form) you tin safely usage from your artillery without damaging the battery, according to the manufacturer. The person the artillery gets to 100%, the better. 

However, it's not recommended that you wholly drain 100% of your battery's usable capacity. This tin shorten its lifespan and marque it harder for your artillery to clasp a complaint implicit time. You'll get much rhythm beingness retired of your artillery by utilizing arsenic small vigor from your artillery arsenic you tin astatine a time.

Most star batteries volition person a specified maximum (overall) capableness and a usable capacity.

  • Maximum capacity: The full magnitude of vigor the artillery allows you to store
  • Usable capacity: The full magnitude of vigor the artillery allows you to use

These capableness numbers tin beryllium utilized to cipher the extent of discharge by dividing the usable capableness by the maximum capableness and past multiplying the reply by 100. For example, if a artillery has a maximum capableness of 10 kWh and a usable capableness of 9 kWh, past its extent of discharge is 90%. 

Power output

All star batteries volition person highest and continuous powerfulness output ratings. Your battery's highest powerfulness output is fundamentally however overmuch powerfulness the artillery tin enactment retired each astatine erstwhile without risking damage. A artillery tin lone "peak" for truthful agelong though, truthful each artillery should besides disclose however agelong (in seconds oregon minutes) it tin output its maximum power. Continuous powerfulness output is the magnitude of powerfulness the artillery tin output astatine each times. If you unrecorded successful a ample location oregon person a batch of ample high-power appliances, you're going to privation higher powerfulness output ratings. A reputable installer volition beryllium capable to supply powerfulness output recommendations for your location based connected your vigor usage and powerfulness needs. 

Note that these powerfulness output ratings volition besides beryllium antithetic depending connected if your strategy is grid-tied oregon off-grid, and immoderate manufacturers are much transparent astir providing these ratings connected their merchandise datasheets than others. If you program connected going off-grid, you'll apt request aggregate batteries. 


Since star batteries are an costly investment, it's tenable to expect a bully warranty. Most star artillery warranties volition screen up to a definite fig of years, cycles, extremity of warranty capableness and throughput. You tin expect astir star artillery warranty periods to past astatine slightest 10 years.

Cycles: Any clip you drain your battery, it needs to recharge. This process is called a cycle. Like astir batteries, your star artillery volition dilatory suffer its quality to clasp a afloat complaint implicit time. Many manufacturers volition typically screen a definite fig of cycles successful the warranty agreement. The mean warranty usually guarantees determination betwixt 4,000 to 6,000 cycles. 

End-of-warranty capacity: Your battery's wide capableness volition alteration implicit time. A star battery's end-of-warranty capableness is the manufacturer's warrant that your artillery volition beryllium capable to store up to a definite percent of vigor capableness by the clip your warranty is up. Most manufacturers volition warrant that your artillery volition inactive beryllium capable to clasp astatine slightest 60% of its archetypal capableness by the clip your warranty ends. This means if you bargain a artillery with a usable capableness of 15 kWh, your artillery should beryllium capable to store astatine slightest 9 kWh of vigor earlier your warranty expires.

Throughput: Some artillery warranties see a throughput number. A throughput fig is the wide magnitude of vigor (typically measured successful megawatt-hours) that the artillery is expected to present during its full lifetime. This means your warranty is valid until your artillery hits its throughput number. In immoderate cases, if you negociate to deed your throughput fig earlier your warranty play ends, your warranty volition expire. 

The emblematic star artillery warranty covers astir 10 years, 4,000 to 6,000 cycles and up to 60% oregon 70% of your batteries' end-of-warranty capacity. As you store astir for star batteries, beryllium definite to comparison warranties and cautiously work the good people successful the agreement. 

Types of star batteries

There are 4 main types of star batteries: lithium-ion, lead-acid, travel and nickel-cadmium batteries. Most star batteries you'll brushwood are lithium-ion batteries, portion travel and nickel-cadmium batteries are much concern focused and not suitable for residential use. On the different hand, lead-acid batteries are little quality, but cheaper. Here's a breakdown of the antithetic types of star batteries.

Lithium-ion batteries

If you're installing a star artillery for your home, it volition apt be lithium-ion. These batteries are 1 of the astir communal types of residential star artillery and person a precocious vigor density, allowing them to clasp much vigor capableness successful a smaller space. Lithium-ion batteries usually person a higher extent of discharge too, allowing you to drain much vigor from your artillery with a little hazard of damage. Plus, they necessitate small to nary maintenance, which makes them fashionable for computers, compartment phones and vehicles. The downside is that lithium-ion batteries are expensive, and they thin to overheat and go damaged astatine higher voltages. If not decently installed, this could effect successful a fire. 

Lead-acid batteries

Lead-acid batteries person been astir for a agelong time, making them different fashionable prime for location artillery needs. These batteries person a little vigor density and ratio standing than different artillery types, but they bash person a agelong lifespan (with due maintenance) and a much mature exertion base. Lead-acid batteries are mostly cheaper arsenic well. 

Flow batteries

While flow batteries are so a benignant of star battery, you won't beryllium seeing them successful galore homes. Flow batteries are larger batteries (around 2.2 MWh successful capacity) and are usually utilized for grid-scale vigor storage. Since these batteries are truthful large, they are incredibly expensive. They are champion suited for concern usage and are not intended for household vigor storage.

Nickel-cadmium batteries

Because nickel-cadmium batteries are precise durable and enactment good successful utmost temperatures, they are a fashionable artillery prime for large-scale commercialized and concern projects. Nickel-cadmium batteries person a precocious vigor density, yielding doubly the vigor of a lead-acid battery. Unfortunately, cadmium is toxic and is banned successful definite parts of the world. Nickel-cadmium batteries are precise expensive, too. These batteries are mostly not due for residential use.

How we evaluated the champion star batteries

First and foremost, it's important to telephone retired that not each star artillery is close for each home. Solar is simply a precise site-specific and personalized determination process, truthful it's a small tricky to pinpoint precisely which star artillery is the "best" artillery for your home's vigor needs without doing an on-site consultation. It should besides beryllium said that we didn't person immoderate signifier of hands-on investigating with immoderate of the batteries we scored. However, determination are ways to measure and comparison these batteries successful bid to find the stand-outs. Here's however we developed our database of apical star batteries.

First, we determined which categories would beryllium utilized to measure each battery's efficiency, performance, capableness and value. We besides weighted each category. The value of each class reflects the value we felt was applicable to the mean consumer. 

After a thorough probe process, these were the categories we chose to measure each artillery on.

  • Battery modularity (stackability): 20%
  • Warranty: 20%
  • Round-trip efficiency: 15%
  • Depth of discharge: 10%
  • Power output: 10%
  • Price: 10%
  • Customer reviews: 10%
  • Battery capacity: 5%

We looked astatine 15 of the astir wide disposable batteries connected the marketplace and collected the information for each class to comparison the numbers. Each class (for each battery) was fixed a tier-style standing (from 1 to 5) to measure which aspects of each artillery were supra mean (among our list), conscionable mean oregon beneath average. 

Solar artillery FAQs

Do star batteries suffice for the national taxation credit?

How overmuch is simply a star battery?

As you apt guessed, star batteries are expensive. Oftentimes, the artillery volition outgo astir the aforesaid magnitude arsenic your star panels. Solar batteries tin outgo anyplace from $12,000 to $22,000, according to the US Department of Energy. However, you tin usually find smaller batteries (8 kWh oregon less) for little than $10,000 earlier installation. The larger your home, the much wealth you'll walk connected solar.

How agelong bash star batteries last?

A star battery's lifespan is typically betwixt 5 and 15 years. Factors affecting the lifespan of your artillery see upwind conditions (if outdoors), benignant of battery, extent of discharge (the little vigor you usage astatine 1 time, the better), installation and usage. 

How galore star batteries bash I request to spell off-grid?

Because star is truthful site-dependent, determination is nary definitive reply for the fig of batteries it takes to spell off-grid. It's going to beryllium antithetic for everybody. However, astir homeowners are going to request aggregate batteries to spell wholly off-grid. Your home's vigor usage and the size of your star strategy are 2 of the biggest factors determining however galore batteries you'll request to spell off-grid.

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